Measures and Concepts

Our Analysis Core team has developed, and mentored others to develop, concepts and self-report measurement instruments relevant to health disparities research in older adults.  Many are available in Spanish.  Below, we provide resources on the following:

  • Quality of health care (interpersonal processes of care, cultural sensitivity, patient satisfaction)
  • Physical activity (lifestyle physical activities for older adults)
  • Social determinants of disparities (e.g., stress of immigration, social support, perceived discrimination)
  • Sociodemographic characteristics (e.g., childhood social/economic circumstances) 

Quality of Health Care

Interpersonal Processes of Care (IPC) Survey (+Spanish)

Phase one: Comprehensive conceptual framework of aspects of communication, decision-making, and interpersonal style of physicians relevant to minority patients.

Phase two: Patient-reported IPC survey reflecting our framework and meeting criteria for psychometric invariance across African American, Spanish- and English-speaking Latino, and white patients.

  • History of concept development
  • Survey development and psychometric evaluation
  • Survey and scoring


Clinician’s Cultural Sensitivity Survey (CCSS) (+Spanish)

Conceptual framework of dimensions of cultural sensitivity of physicians based on qualitative research with African American, Latino, and white patients. Patient-reported survey reflecting those concepts, tested in Spanish- and English-speaking Latinos.

  • Conceptual framework
  • Psychometrics
  • Survey and scoring


Patient Satisfaction Survey

Adapted patient-reported existing survey to be relevant for African Americans based on formative research and empirical evaluation.

  • Conceptual framework
  • Psychometrics
  • Survey and scoring


Physical Activity

CHAMPS Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Adults (+Spanish)

Participation in a variety of lifestyle physical activities relevant to older adults. Designed specifically for older adults as an outcome measure for interventions.

  • Development process
  • Psychometrics
  • Survey and scoring


Social Determinants of Health Disparities

Stress of Immigration Survey (+Spanish)

Participant-reported multidimensional survey of perceived stress specific to immigration-related issues among low-income women of Mexican descent.

  • Conceptual framework
  • Psychometrics
  • Survey and scoring


Concepts and Measures of Resilience 

“Resilience” is a complex, multidimensional concept. We review concepts and measures and identify an underlying conceptual framework. A bibliography includes definitions, measures, conceptual frameworks, and qualitative research in minority groups.

  • Slides
  • Bibliography


Social Support (+ Korean, Chinese, Spanish)

We provide the Medical Outcomes Study (MOS) Social Support Survey (also in Spanish), a conceptual framework of social support relevant to older Korean and Chinese immigrants, and a short social support survey in Chinese, Spanish, and English that met criteria for invariance across these three groups.

  • MOS survey and scoring
  • Conceptual frameworks
  • 8-item survey


Perceived Discrimination and Racism

Review of appropriateness of several measures of discrimination within three theoretical frameworks. Perceived Racism Scale (PRS) modified for older African Americans with diabetes.

  • Review
  • Modified PRS


Neighborhood Factors

Conceptual framework of environmental factors affecting health based on qualitative research with ethnically diverse older adults.

  • Conceptual framework


Socioeconomic Status

Childhood social and economic circumstances

Conceptual framework of childhood experiences such as school, neighborhood, and family based on qualitative research with ethnically diverse older adults. Structured survey assessing these experiences retrospectively; tests of associations with adult health and socioeconomic status.

  • Conceptual framework
  • Survey items published in article


Race, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and other demographics (+Spanish)

Conceptual framework of race, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and other demographic characteristics relevant to studies of health disparities, including rationale. Compilation of recommended items including item sources and downloadable surveys.

  • Conceptual framework
  • Surveys