Measures and Concepts

Our Analysis Core has developed concepts and self-report measurement instruments relevant to the study of health disparities in older adults. These include quality of health care, physical activity, social determinants of disparities (e.g., social support, perceived discrimination), and socioeconomic characteristics. Many have been translated into non-English languages, primarily Spanish. This research was conducted by CADC pilot project grantees as well as by our faculty. We outline these measures and indicate the available resources for each. Our work also can provide methodological guidelines on how to develop or adapt measures for use in minority populations.

Quality of Health Care

Interpersonal Processes of Care (IPC) Survey (+Spanish)

Phase one: Comprehensive conceptual framework of aspects of communication, decision-making, and interpersonal style of physicians relevant to minority patients.

Phase two: Patient-reported IPC survey reflecting our framework and meeting criteria for psychometric invariance across African American, Spanish- and English-speaking Latino, and white patients.

 

  • History of concept development
  • Survey development and psychometric evaluation
  • Survey and scoring

Clinician’s Cultural Sensitivity Survey (CCSS) (+Spanish)

Conceptual framework of dimensions of cultural sensitivity of physicians based on qualitative research with African American, Latino, and white patients. Patient-reported survey reflecting those concepts, tested in Spanish- and English-speaking Latinos.

 

  • Conceptual framework
  • Psychometrics
  • Survey and scoring

Patient Satisfaction Survey

Adapted patient-reported existing survey to be relevant for African Americans based on formative research and empirical evaluation.

 

  • Conceptual framework
  • Psychometrics
  • Survey and scoring

Physical Activity

CHAMPS Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Adults (+Spanish)

Participation in a variety of lifestyle physical activities relevant to older adults. Designed specifically for older adults as an outcome measure for interventions.

 

  • Development process
  • Psychometrics
  • Survey and scoring

Social Determinants of Health Disparities

Stess of Immigration Survey (+Spanish)

Participant-reported multidimensional survey of perceived stress specific to immigration-related issues among low-income women of Mexican descent.

 

  • Conceptual framework
  • Psychometrics
  • Survey and scoring

Concepts and Measures of Resilience 

“Resilience” is a complex, multidimensional concept. We review concepts and measures and identify an underlying conceptual framework. A bibliography includes definitions, measures, conceptual frameworks, and qualitative research in minority groups.

 

  • Slides
  • Bibliography

Social Support (+ Korean, Chinese, Spanish)

A multidimensional social support survey relevant to older Korean and Chinese adults based on a series of mixed-methods studies. A modified version administered in Chinese, Spanish, and English met criteria for invariance across those groups.

 

  • Conceptual framework
  • Psychometrics Survey
  • Scoring

Perceived Discrimination and Racism

Review of appropriateness of several measures of discrimination within three theoretical frameworks. Perceived Racism Scale (PRS) modified for older African Americans with diabetes.

 

  • Review
  • Modified PRS

Neighborhood Factors

Conceptual framework of environmental factors affecting health based on qualitative research with ethnically diverse older adults.

 

  • Conceptual framework

Socioeconomic Status

Childhood social and economic circumstances

Conceptual framework of childhood experiences such as school, neighborhood, and family based on qualitative research with ethnically diverse older adults. Structured survey assessing these experiences retrospectively; tests of associations with adult health and socioeconomic status.

 

  • Conceptual framework
  • Survey items published in article

Race, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and other demographics (+Spanish)

Conceptual framework of race, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and other demographic characteristics relevant to studies of health disparities, including rationale. Compilation of recommended items including item sources and downloadable surveys.

 

  • Conceptual framework
  • Surveys